HIV in Mozambique
Mozambique is a predominantly rural country of approximately 27 million people challenged by a severe generalized HIV epidemic. National HIV prevalence is 13.2%, with substantial variation in regional prevalence ranging from 25.1% in Southern provinces to 3.7% in Northern provinces. In 2016, there were an estimated 1,849,690 PLHIV, with a higher prevalence among women (15.4% vs 10.1% in men) and especially among young women (aged 15-24 years) compared to young men. Prevalence among adolescent girls and young women is estimated at 6.9%. Of the estimated number of PLHIV in 2016, 54% are currently on ART. The HIV epidemic has contributed to a reduced life expectancy of 56.1 years, and there are approximately 1.8 million orphaned children.
Key drivers of Mozambique’s HIV epidemic are:
- low coverage of ART
- risky sexual behaviors
- low rates of male circumcision
- low and inconsistent condom use
- mobility and migration
- sex work
Qualitative studies have highlighted the social and cultural factors that shape attitudes and behaviors towards risk, sexual relations, prevention, care seeking and use of services.